Types Of Mortgages In Canada

Types Of Mortgages In Canada

Most Canadians who want to buy a home are faced with the challenge of deciding which of the types of mortgages available in Canada will be right for them.

In Canada, there are primarily two types of mortgages to pick from. It’s either you go to a mortgage broker or you choose to enter into the deal with the bank.

Mortgage procedures and processes can be tedious and stressful for everyone, irrespective of whether you’re a first-time mortgagee or not. So there are a few basic mortgages available in Canada to pick from.

This article will go over all of the many types of mortgages available in Canada; how they operate; the procedure; and everything else you’ll need to know to get the best mortgage for you when the time comes to purchase a home.

What is a mortgage?

The term “mortgage” refers to financial assistance in the form of a loan provided by a bank or other financial institution to assist a borrower in purchasing a property. The actual property being mortgaged serves as the loan’s collateral.

This means that if the borrower doesn’t pay the lender the required monthly payments and ends up not paying back the loan, the lender can sell the house and get the money it loaned out.

Mortgage loans are often taken out for terms of 25, 20, or 15 years, and constitute a kind of long-term debt. During this period of time, which is referred to as the “term” of the loan, you will be responsible for making payments toward not just the principal but also the interest that has accrued on the loan.

You will be required to make repayments on the mortgage at predetermined intervals, most frequently in the form of monthly payments. These repayments will normally include both principal and interest costs.

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Mortgage Term

This is the duration, or rather the length of time you (the borrower) have to make payments on your mortgage loan. The majority of mortgage terms are either 15, 20, or 30 years long, depending on the type of house being purchased. Mortgage term can varry between the types of mortgages in Canada.

Although the overall number of years over which you are scheduled to pay off your mortgage debt is referred to as the amortization, the conditions of the loan are subject to renegotiation every few years.

The word “re-negotiation” refers to a mortgage term that normally remains in place for a period of five years.

This implies that you will have five terms and four options to modify the loan conditions during the course of the 25-year amortized mortgage. However, you are free to change your sentence in any way that fits you.

How Does A Mortgage Work In Canada?

Having your application for a mortgage accepted is among the most essential steps in the home-buying process. Prior to making the purchase of a property, it is necessary for Canadians to have a thorough grasp of this process.

This is because, if you are not organized, the process may be a lot more stressful and tougher than it has to be. The following is a brief explanation of how mortgages are processed in Canada:

Important Prerequisites For The Application:

Before submitting a mortgage application, consider the following five points: If you do, any Canadian lender you contact will complete your application fast and simply.

1. Initial Down Payment

In Canada, prospective purchasers are required to have an initial down payment of at least 5% of the purchase price. The two major forms of downpayment include:

  • High-ratio down-payment
  • Conventional down payment

High-Ratio Down Payment

High-ratio mortgages require a 5–20% down payment. This first down-payment involves what is referred to as CMHC-insurance, a one-off cost that safeguards the lender if a borrower defaults. These mortgages are only for homes under $1 million.

Conventional Down Payment

These are for purchasers with 20% down. They don’t need CMHC insurance. A property for $1 million or more requires a 20% down payment and a standard mortgage.

2. Excellent Credit

A credit score is dependent on how well you’ve repaid loans and credit cards. Lenders like 650-plus credit score purchasers.

Some premier A lenders accept borrowers with lesser ratings. B lenders and private lenders might provide higher rates to those with credit scores below 600. Regardless of the types of mortgages in Canada you choose from, credit will usually play a central role.

3. Lower Debt To Income Ratio

Your debt-to-income ratio indicates to lenders how much debt you can handle depending on your present financial condition and anticipated financial troubles or interest rate increases.

A low debt-to-income ratio of 20 percent or less is a very good indication that you’ve a considerable balance of debt and income and that you can make monthly payments while repaying debt.

4. Reliable Earnings/Income

Canadian mortgage applicants must provide income and employment. This shows the lender that you have a consistent and steady income inflow and can afford a mortgage. Income and type determine loan amounts.

Self-employed or contract workers have possibilities. Lenders will average your last two years of tax paperwork to determine eligibility.

5. Required Documents

You must supply your lender with crucial documentation and information to start the mortgage process. Mortgage documentation include:

  • Valid Identification Card
  • Job Offer Letter
  • T4 and/or T4A
  • T1 General Tax Return
  • Notice of Assessment (NOA)
  • Pay Stub
  • Bank Statement
  • Gift Letter

7 Types Of Mortgages In Canada

There are seven basic types of mortgages licensed to operate within the Canadian territories. They are as follows:

1. Traditional Mortgage

Traditional mortgages are available to borrowers who meet certain criteria, the most common of which is having a down payment equal to or more than 20 percent of the property’s value.

There is also a possibility that you may be required to have homeowner’s insurance on the property, but this will depend on the lender


2. Open Mortgage

With an open mortgage, you can pay off your loan in full or in part at any time throughout the term without having to pay a prepayment penalty.

This kind of mortgage is comparable to what people refer to as a “reverse mortgage.” The interest rate that is applicable to a mortgage that is open is often higher than the interest rate that is applicable to a mortgage that has been closed.

 A mortgage with an open term gives you freedom until you are ready to commit to a mortgage with a closed term.

3. Closed Mortgage

A closed mortgage may restrict your ability to make prepayments, but it often comes with a cheaper interest rate than an open mortgage does.

A mortgage is considered to be closed when it is no longer possible to prepay, renegotiate, or refinance it before the end of the term without being subject to a prepayment penalty.

Some closed mortgages, on the other hand, provide for set prepayment rights, such as the ability to prepay a certain percentage of the initial mortgage amount each year without incurring a prepayment fee. This is a great example of a closed mortgage with prepayment options.

At the moment, SBIC allows you to prepay up to 10% of the original sum each year. You can also choose to increase your recurring payments by 10% of the initial amount. Every year, they are non-cumulative.

4. Variable Rate Mortgages

If you choose to obtain a mortgage with a variable rate in Canada, the interest rate that you are charged may change on a regular basis.

Because the mortgage rate is related to the lender’s prime rate, it varies whenever the prime rate does.

Because your monthly payments will remain the same throughout the duration of the loan, the proportion of your payment that is applied to the principal as opposed to the interest may shift depending on how your lender’s prime rate shifts.

Here Is How It Is Calculated

1. If the amount of your payment does not change but the interest rate on your loan does, more of your payment will go toward paying off the principal balance.

2. If the amount of your payment does not change but the interest rate does, a greater portion of your monthly mortgage payment will be applied to the interest portion of the loan.If your monthly payment is insufficient to meet the interest, your payment will be raised.

In light of the information shown above, the length of your mortgage’s amortization period,the number of years it will take you to pay off the loan, may change and become longer if interest rates have risen since the beginning of the term, or it could become shorter if rates have fallen.

You might need to make some adjustments to the way payments are set up at different points in time.

You can switch to a fixed-rate mortgage at any time and at no cost, at the then-applicable rate, as long as the new term is the same length as or longer than your present variable-rate term. If the period of your new mortgage is the same as or longer than the term of your existing variable rate mortgage,


5. Fixed Interest Rate Mortgage

If you wish to safeguard your mortgage payment against prospective rises in interest rates, you should select a fixed-rate mortgage, in which the interest rate is fixed or locked for the term of the loan.

If you want to make sure that your mortgage payment stays the same even if interest rates go up, click here for more information.

With a fixed interest rate, the following will be known when the mortgage is issued:

1. The interest rate for which the lender will charge on the mortgage for the entire term.

2. The amount of your regular mortgage payments and the amount of your mortgage that will be repaid by the end of the mortgage’s term.

3. The amount of your payment that will be used toward the principal as well as the interest will be .

6. Convertible Mortgage

A convertible mortgage is an agreement created at the beginning of a term that permits homeowners to change the kind of mortgage they have while the mortgage is still in existence.

The ideal choice for a homeowner who wishes to begin with an open mortgage and later convert to a closed mortgage is a convertible mortgage. It has lower interest rates than open mortgages, and you can change it into a closed-term mortgage if you want to.

Most lenders can also convert a variable rate mortgage to a fixed rate mortgage if the borrower chose a variable rate mortgage and now wants to switch to a fixed rate before the term ends.

How a Convertible Mortgage Works

A convertible mortgage provides you with the same advantages as a closed mortgage, but it can be changed to one with a longer, closed term at any moment without incurring any fees for early repayment.

In a convertible mortgage, the duration can range from six months to a year, and you will receive a fixed rate. But you will also have the choice of locking in for a longer term or continuing for a shorter term with a rate that is more variable.

7. Reverse Mortgage

To put it another way, reverse mortgages make it possible for you to convert the equity you’ve built up in your home into monetary value.

In order to be eligible for this kind of mortgage, you will need to be at least 62-63 years old, but you won’t have to worry about selling or moving out of your current house during the process.

There is a correlation between the age of a homeowner and the quantity of money that can be borrowed from them. The age of the homeowner is a factor in the amount of money that they are eligible to borrow.

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Long-Term Vs. Short-Term Mortgages

The amount of time that the terms of your mortgage contract must be adhered to is referred to as the mortgage term. At the conclusion of each mortgage term, the loan must be renewed for another period.

This presents a chance for you to evaluate your current mortgage and decide whether or not you would like to make any changes to it.

Whether or not you want to make changes to your mortgage

Long-Term Mortgage

  • A long-term mortgage is one that lasts three years or longer.
  • When interest rates are low and you want the certainty of budgeting for the future, a long-term mortgage is typically the best option.

Short-Term Mortgage

  • A short-term mortgage is typically for no more than two years.
  • A short- mortgage is a suitable alternative if you feel interest rates will fall by the maturity date. Generally, the lower the interest rate, the shorter the duration.

Most Canadian banks, including SBI Canada Bank, provide mortgage periods ranging from one (1) to five (5) years.

The annual percentage rate of interest will not change at any point for the length of the time period. At the end of the term, you will be able to renegotiate the rate and any other parts of the contract that apply to the next time period.


Tips To Pay Your Mortgage Faster And Save On Interest

1. Begin with a lump sum prepayment

 If you have decided to go with a closed mortgage or already have one, you will not be subject to any penalties of any sort:

A mortgage represents a substantial, long-term financial commitment. The standard mortgage payment plan is 25 years, but the following ideas may help you pay off your debt sooner.

You may take a number of steps to reduce the amount you owe on your mortgage and exit debt more quickly. Here are some pointers:

  1. Consider a 5-year closed, fixed-rate mortgage for $200,000 with a 25-year amortization, a 4.25 percent annual interest rate compounded every six months over the life of the mortgage, and monthly payments of $1079.32.

You should exercise your “Prepayment Privilege” once per year by making a single prepayment in the form of a lump sum equivalent to up to ten percent of your mortgage’s initial principal amount.

If you make a single payment and do not owe any interest, your whole payment will be applied to the loan’s main sum.

For example, if you pay a $5,000 lump sum payment in the first year of your mortgage, you would save a total of $8,957.84 in interest over the life of the loan. In addition to this, instead of taking 25 years to pay off your mortgage, it will only take you 24 years.

  1. You may continue making payments at the increased rate for the balance of the term, unless you want to increase them again in 12 months..

You can continue to make payments at the higher rate for the remainder of the term unless you choose to increase them again in 12 months.

For example, if you raise the monthly payment of $1079.32 by 10% ($108), you may pay off the mortgage in 21.4 years rather than 25 years, saving $20,597.

2. Use An Open Mortgage

 If you have decided to go with an open mortgage or already have one, you will not be required to pay any kind of prepayment penalty if you want to make a payment against your mortgage principal at any time.

3. Make Regular Payments

To pay your mortgage faster, it’s recommended you make payments more regularly, which will, in the long run, save you money on interest costs because it will allow you to reduce your principal balance more quickly.

You may pay off your mortgage faster and save a significant amount of money if you move from making payments on a monthly basis to making them on a weekly or biweekly basis instead.

You could, for instance, save as much as $18,139.94 on interest during the amortization period of your mortgage if you switched from making monthly payments to making accelerated bi-weekly payments instead of monthly payments.

This would result in the mortgage being paid off in 21.8 years rather than 25 years. Please see the table below.

Payment FrequencyMonthly Payment (one payment in a month).     ($)Bi-Weekly (one payment in two weeks).     ($)Accelerated Bi-Weekly (half of monthly payment and a total of 26 payments in 1 year). ($)
Regular Payment1079.32.00497.68.00539.66.00
Total interest paid over the amortization period123,796.10.00  123,489.37.00  105,656.16.00  
Interest saved versus monthly paymentNone  306.73.00  18,139.94.00

4. Renewal opens all mortgages

This indicates that you are free to make mortgage payments of any amount up to the time when you are required to renew your mortgage for the remaining balance.

Types of Mortgages in Canada: Final Thoughts

These are the most common types of mortgages that can currently be obtained by Canadians. There are a few variants, and some financial institutions have their own method of lending, but in the end, it all comes down to these primary types of mortgages.

Please do not hesitate to get in touch with us in the event that you need any assistance or even further information.

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FAQs about Types of Mortgages in Canada

What Is The Most Common Mortgage Term In Canada?

The most common mortgage term in Canada is the short-term mortgage, which has a term of 5 years or less. A shorter-term mortgage, often known as a mortgage with a duration of five years or less, is held by the vast majority of mortgage holders in Canada. The shorter the duration, the more quickly you will be able to renew your mortgage deal. You might benefit in a couple of ways by opting for a mortgage with a shorter term.

  1. You have the option of a fixed or variable interest rate.
  2. Enjoy the benefits of a lower interest rate when you join up for the service.

What Is The Longest Mortgage You Can Get In Canada?

A 25-year fixed mortgage is the longest term available when obtaining a mortgage in Canada. If you have a mortgage that has a fixed rate for the whole 25-year term of your loan, then your interest rate will not change during any part of that time. This type of mortgage term is now only available from RBC Royal Bank in Canada. It is also the longest mortgage term that can be gotten.

What Is A Good Credit Score In Canada?

According to Equifax, within the borders of Canada, a decent credit score often falls between 660 and 724. Your credit is likely to be regarded as very good if it falls anywhere in the range of 725 and 759 points. A credit score of 760 or above is often regarded as an outstanding credit score by financial institutions and consumers alike. /The possible range for a person's credit score is anything from 300 to 900. Lenders analyze your capacity to repay loans using your credit score. The higher your credit score, the better your chances are of being approved for loans and other forms of credit. It is also possible for it to be verified when an individual applies for specific employment or tries to rent a house. However, the financial circumstances of each person are unique, and your credit score will fluctuate over time based on the length of your credit history as well as the total amount of debt you carry.

What Additional Fees May Apply If You Prepay Your Mortgage?

When a mortgage is paid off in full before the maturity date, there are sometimes extra fees to pay: Mortgage Release/Assignment Fee When the mortgage is paid off in full, you may have to pay a discharge fee and/or an assignment fee to prepare and register the paperwork.

What Additional Fees May Be Charged For Prepayment Of A Mortgage?

When a mortgage is paid off in full before the maturity date, there are sometimes extra fees to pay, such as:

  • Fee for Mortgage Release and Assignment
After paying off the mortgage in full, you may have to pay a discharge fee and/or an assignment fee so that the paperwork can be made and registered.

Can I get a 40-year mortgage in Canada?

No, you can not get it! Currently, the maximum mortgage tearm in Canada is 35 years. Although the amortization length for the typical new mortgage in Canada is set at 25 years, this is not the only choice available. When it comes to their mortgages, residents of Canada have the flexibility to select an amortization term of up to 35 years. The maximum amortization term used to be 40 years. However, in 2008, the federal government tightened several mortgage restrictions, which resulted in the elimination of the 40-year mortgage option. As of right now, a Canadian borrower has the option of selecting a mortgage term that is up to 35 years long.

Can I Get A 40-Year Mortgage In Canada?

The general rule of thumb is that if your monthly mortgage payments do not exceed 45 percent of your gross income, you should be able to get the loan.This guideline applies to people of any age. Furthermore, Social Security and pension income – the latter up to the government guarantee level of $4653.41 per month in 2012 – are as close to a guaranteed thing as you can get these days. The lender should be more comfortable than with ordinary income, which can terminate abruptly at any time.


February 14, 2023
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